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  • سنة-1984 : وفاة كامل ابو السعات الغطاس المصرى العالمى.
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  • سنة-1961 : وافق مجلس الأمة على مشروع القانون الخاص بتنظيم الأزهر.
 
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هو شيخ الكيميائيين ,ومن رواد المنهج التجريبي في العلوم ..شهد له بذلك كل من جاءوا بعده واستفادوا بعلمه..

ولد جابر بن حيان بخرسان ثم رحل الى بغداد حيث عاش فترة طويلة ابان الخلافة العباسية ,ثم سافر الى الكوفة حيث قام بها .

بداء جابر بن حيان رحلته مع الكيمياء في الوقت الذي لم تكن الكيمياء تخضع لقوانين تضبطهت وانما كانت قاصره على بعض العمليات الحياتيه كالصباغة وتحضير الزيوت والعطور وما شابة ,,عكف ابن حيان على اجراء المحاولات والتجارب الكيميائه واستخدم في ذلك بعض الادوات كالميزان والموقد والمرجل والقمع والقطاره ومعظم هذة الادوات من اكتشافاته ولازالت تستخدم حتى الان في معامل الكيمياء الحديثة ..وكان استخدام جابر للميزان اشارة لم يسبق اليها الى قانون النسب الثابتة في الكيمياء وهو ان المواد تتفاعل باوزان معينة او بنسب معينة ..

واصبحت الكيمياء شغل ابن حيان الشاغل ,,ختى اطلق عليها اهل زمانه "صنعة جابر "

وتمكن جابر من اجراء بعض العمليات الكيميائيه لاول مره كالترشيح والتقطير والتبخير والاكسدة ..وكان نتيجتها تحضير مواد كيميائيه لم تكن تعرف مثال ذلك :مجموعة الاحماض كحمض الهيدروكلوريك وحمض الكبريتك والاحماض العضوية كحمض الالخليك وحمض الليمونيك كما حضر نترات الفضة واطلق عليها اسم "حجر جهنم "

سجل ابن حيان تجاربه وارائه ومشاهداته في العديد من الكتب لعل اشهرها كتاب " الخواص الكبير " وقد ترجمت اعمالة في اوروبا ابان العصور الوسطى وظلت تلك الاعمال اهم المراجع لتدريس الكيمياء هناك وقد عرفه الغرب باسم جبير "Geber”

ومن خلال كتاباته ,يمكن القول بان جابر بن حيان هو بحق من رواد المنهج العلمي التجريبي نلمح ذلك من قولة "اننا نذكر في هذة الكتب خواص ما رأيناه فقط دون ماسمعناه او قيل لنا او قرأناه وانما ما امتحناه وجربناه فما صح اثبتناه وما بطل رفضناه
أضف إلى yahoo أضف إلى simpy أضف إلى reddit أضف إلى digg أضف إلى del.icio.us أضف إلى facebook

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الكاتب: جهير  العصيمي التاريخ: 2013/03/05
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