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كوريا الجنوبية

كوريا الجنوبية






     جمهورية كوريا الجنوبية هي إحدى دول قارة أسيا، والتي تتميز بسواحلها الشاسعة وذلك نظراً لامتدادها على شكل شبه جزيرة وتحيطها البحار من ثلاث جهات، وهو الأمر الذي جعل سواحلها تزخر بثروة سمكية ضخمة، وقد عانت كوريا من الاحتلال الياباني لعدد كبير من السنوات، ثم من عدد من الحروب حتى تمكنت من التحرر في نهاية الأمر، وشهدت نهضة اقتصادية عالية.

 

الموقع

      تقع كوريا الجنوبية شرق قارة أسيا على شكل شبه جزيرة يحيط بها كل من بحر اليابان شرقاً، والبحر الأصفر غرباً، ومضيق كوريا جنوباً، بينما تحدها شمالاً كوريا الشمالية.

 

معلومات عامة عن كوريا الجنوبية

المساحة: تبلغ مساحة كوريا 98.480 كم2.

عدد السكان: يبلغ عدد السكان 49.044.790 نسمة.

العاصمة: سيول

اللغة: اللغة الرسمية الكورية بالإضافة للغة الإنجليزية.

العملة: الوان الكوري الجنوبي

الديانة: المسيحية 26% وتنقسم إلى "بروتستانت ورومان كاثوليك" ، والبوذية 23.3%،  وعدد من الديانات والمعتقدات الأخرى.


نظام الحكم






      نظام الحكم بكوريا الجنوبية جمهوري، يرأس الدولة رئيساً للجمهورية يتم انتخابه بالاقتراع الشعبي المباشر لفترة رئاسية مدتها خمس سنوات، ويرأس الحكومة رئيساً للوزراء يعينه رئيس الجمهورية، أما الحكومة فهي مجلس للدولة يتم تعينه بواسطة رئيس الجمهورية أيضاً بناء على توصية من رئيس الوزراء.

 

أما السلطة التشريعية فتتكون من مجلس واحد هو الجمعية الوطنية، وتتألف من 299 عضو، ويتم انتخاب أعضاؤها بالاقتراع الشعبي المباشر لمدة أربع سنوات.

أعلى سلطة قضائية في البلاد تتمثل في المحكمة العليا، ويقوم رئيس الجمهورية بتعيين قضاتها بعد موافقة المجلس الوطني.

 

ومن الأحزاب السياسية الموجودة بكوريا الجنوبية يوجد حزب أوري، حزب العمال الديموقراطي، الحزب القومي الكبير، حزب الألفية الديموقراطي، الديموقراطيون الأحرار المتحدون وغيرها من الأحزاب الأخرى.

 

نبذة تاريخية

      قامت اليابان باحتلال كوريا في الفترة ما بين 1910- 1945م،  بينما سيطر عليها الأمريكيين في الفترة 1945 – 1949م.

تم تقسيم كوريا إلى منطقتين كوريا الشمالية وكوريا الجنوبية وذلك مع نهاية الحرب العالمية الثانية عام 1945م، وقيام حكومتين عام 1948م حكومة شيوعية شمالاً وأخرى جمهورية في الجنوب، اندلعت الحرب الكورية عام 1950م بين كل من الكوريتين فعملت الصين على دعم كوريا الشمالية، بينما قامت الولايات المتحدة بدعم كوريا الجنوبية، وفي عام 1953م تم توقيع هدنة بين الطرفين وانقسمت شبه الجزيرة إلى قسمين يفصل بينهما منطقة منزوعة السلاح.

شهدت كوريا الجنوبية بعد ذلك انطلاقة اقتصادية كبيرة على الرغم من الاضطرابات السياسية التي عانت منها. 



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